The fact that participants were divided along gender lines when it came to reporting their hook up experiences comes as no surprise. Holman sees this as a response to the increased pressure on men to exaggerate their level of sexual activity, she wrote. Amanda Hess, writing for GOOD , goes so far as to say that the vagueness of the term could help both men and women dodge the judgments others might make about their sexual behavior:. Since "hookup" serves as a catch-all for everything from intercourse to passing out while spooning, the term could help mitigate the gender-based social pressures and stigmas attached to sexual relationships In a sexist sexual climate, "we hooked up" could be the great equalizer.
In general, puberty is a time when sexuality and body awareness becomes a main focus for individuals to formulate this aspect of their identity. Once in college, for most students, the parental aspect is diminished leaving a student feeling a high degree of freedom to truly explore and expand their whole personal identity, strongly including sexual identity in this "sexual arena.
According to Bogle, the campuses her studies were done at had a common trend of college students being strongly interested in every other student's private life. The viewers of this activity process, interpret, and form assumptions about what was observed. These types of sexual activity or public displays of affection could be as meaningless as two individuals romantically speaking to each other in a high capacity location on campus or could be as extreme as two individuals walking into a bedroom together at a party.
This peer culture has evolved and escalated with access to rapid communication such as texting on cell phones and multiple social media applications. Most these social media applications are identity profiles, public thought disposals, and virtual photo albums of oneself, where other's are just a click away from cyber analysis of how that individual displays themselves physically, sexually, psychologically, emotionally, and mentally on the internet.
Bogle states that the knowing of other's personal lives isn't just a purpose to gossip, but a way to observe, analyze, and be impacted by other's sexual actions, solely for the purpose of their own actions. Some studies have made a connection between hookup culture and substance use. About a third of the students who reported engaging in vaginal, anal, or oral sex during a hookup reported being very intoxicated and another third reported being mildly intoxicated.
Studies suggest that the degree of alcoholic intoxication directly correlates with the level of risky behavior. Studies have generally shown that greater alcohol use is associated with more sexual activity in the course of a hookup. At the other end of the spectrum, the greatest alcohol consumption was associated with penetrative sex, and less alcohol consumption with non-penatrative hookups. Hookup culture on college campuses is intertwined with a broader society. On the other hand, some sociologists have argued that hookup culture is a characteristic of the American college environment and does not reflect broader American youth culture, just as many college graduates stop engaging in hookups when they leave college preferring instead dating or other sexual arrangements.
But evidence exists that young women are propelling it too. Hookup culture also exists outside of the college environment. Location-based geosocial networking smartphone applications, a. Life course studies indicate that as people grow older and as they subjectively identify as adult, they are less likely to engage in casual sexual behavior.
The American Academy of Pediatrics has argued that media representations of sexuality may influence teen sexual behavior,  and this view is supported by a number of studies. Cable television is filled with reality shows that depict an image of partying and glorified hookups, one of the most well known shows being MTV's Jersey Shore. As the cost of personal computers dropped and online access has increased, Heldman and Wade, along with others, argue that internet pornography has "emerged as a primary influence on young people's, especially men's, attitudes towards sex and their own sexuality.
There are many ideas as to why people think young adults are involved in this hook up culture, such as that they feel like they have to do it to fit in. However, many boys and girls did report that they do hook up with random people in order to find someone they could possibly start something serious with.
There have also been a number of studies that have studied the mental aspects of casual hookups. In a study done by psychologist Seth Schwartz has shown results that say that people who had many random hook ups had more psychological issues. They then came up with results that showed that penetrative sex hook ups made people with greater feelings of depression and loneliness have a decrease in those symptoms and feelings. For example, a study by Reiber and Garcia in show that a lot of people that engage in sexual hook ups feel uncomfortable. Random hook ups also have shown to cause feelings of pressure and performance anxiety in a study by Paul, et al.
In this research it was demonstrated that the number of sex partners people have nowadays has barely any difference to the number of partners people had twenty to thirty years ago. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Public cruising areas, Internet cruising networks, and bathhouses are somewhat popular venues although by no means archetypal for explicitly initiating uncommitted sex among men who have sex with men Binson et al.
These are not findings that seem to be prevalent among lesbians and women who have sex with women or among heterosexual hookups. An interdisciplinary biopsychosocial model can synthesize traditionally disconnected theoretical perspectives and provide a more holistic understanding of hookup culture. Which of these factors prove to be most important depends on culture, personality, gender, and social context. Using two midlevel theories, Fisher et al. They argued that evolution may be most helpful in exploring the reproductive motive, and sexual scripts may be useful in exploring the cultural discourse agenda.
That is, evolutionary biology influences why emerging adults engage in uncommitted sex and the way young men and women react to these encounters ultimate level explanations.
At the same time, social roles and sexual scripts influence how emerging adults navigate their desires in a particular socio-cultural context proximate level explanations. It is important to point out that many sociocultural theorists disagree with the idea that culture offers only a proximate level explanation for human sexual behavior. However, it is not the goal of this review to resolve this debate. Instead, we attempt to articulate better the multitude of factors that shape the rich variety of human sexuality to enhance understanding of uncommitted sex among emerging adults.
In the next two sections, we will introduce both evolutionary and social script views of uncommitted sex, to simultaneously consider the influence of each on hookup culture. Human evolutionary behavioral studies attempts to explain sexual behavior by understanding our evolutionary history and how this may influence behavioral patterns in a given environment.
There are several different midlevel evolutionary or biological theories about the nature of human sexual behavior.
A hookup culture is one that accepts and encourages casual sexual encounters, including The hookup culture is vaguely defined due to a variety of perspectives taken on this subject related human sexuality. It is hard to make sense of the. The emergence of sexual hookup culture provides a case of human social Operational definitions of hookups differ among researchers.
These theories seek to understand the way evolutionary pressures influence human sexual propensities, variation, and, in some cases, sex differences. This logic is based on the premise that, compared to asexual reproduction, sexual reproduction is quite costly. Sexually reproducing organisms pay many costs, including the time, energy, and resources spent in finding and attracting mates—tasks that are unnecessary for asexual reproducers Daly, Offsetting the costs of sexual reproduction in large-bodied organisms is the benefit sexual reproduction provides against easy colonization by parasites and pathogens Van Valen, Sexual reproduction scrambles up genes, creating genotypes that are novel environments and forcing the parasites and pathogens to begin anew in their quest to exploit the host.
Thus, large-bodied organisms with long lifespans generally benefit evolutionarily from sexual reproduction despite its substantial costs. In humans, producing a viable offspring, from gestation through lactation, takes females longer than it takes males. The sex with the faster potential reproductive rate— generally males— can benefit by attempting to co-opt the reproductive effort of multiple members of the opposite sex.
However, the sex with the slower potential reproductive rate— generally females—will be operationally in short supply relative to the sex with the faster potential reproductive rate, simply because it takes them longer to complete a reproductive venture. Males are predicted to compete for access to the reproductive potential of the slower sex; this generates expectations of psychological and physical adaptations in males that enhance their chances of success, including aggression and an array of physical features e. Females are predicted to be choosy concerning their mates because they invest more in each offspring, and they stand to lose more if they make a poor reproductive choice.
Relative parental investment costs are thought to be the arbiters of mating behaviors Trivers, Thus in sex role reversed species where males provide a majority of parental support, it is females that are then expected to compete more for mates and be more indiscriminate in their mating Alcock, Because females choose males on the basis of critical features and resources, males are expected to compete with other males to acquire and display these features and resources. This provides a basic framework with which to begin, and in humans we expect complex cognitive processes to be overlaid on it.
In this view—sexual strategies theory—men prefer as many mates as possible, including short-term sexual encounters that can potentially maximize reproductive output. Men will attempt to mate with a maximum number of partners sexual variety , consent to sex more quickly than women, and provide minimal resources to any but long-term partners, only conceding to a long-term relationship for the purposes of enhancing offspring vitality Symons, ; Buss, Also in this view, women are expected to prefer long-term relationships to extract a maximum amount of resources from mates.
In measuring propensities for nonrelational sex, a variety of studies conducted within North America have demonstrated that men consistently have higher sociosexuality scores than women Schmitt, Several scholars have argued that the degree to which evolution shapes mating behaviors, including sociosexuality, will be contingent on particular environmental conditions Frayser, ; Low, ; Schmitt, To support the idea that sociosexuality is likely a combination of evolved sex-specific mating strategies and social structural factors, in a study of over , participants from 53 nations, Lippa demonstrated that although consistent sex differences emerged, gender equality and economic development tended to predict the magnitude of sex differences in sociosexuality more permissive.
Similarly, Wood and Eagly have endorsed a biosocial model for understanding sex differences cross-culturally that takes into account multiple levels of analyses, including biological constraints alongside social and economic constraints. In support of evolved sexual strategies, in a cross-cultural study of 16, individuals across 52 nations, Schmitt et al. Using the short-term seeking measure asking participants on a 7-point scale whether they are actively seeking a short-term mate , they reported that, in North America, relatively more men Of note, using the cross-cultural responses of those who are single excluding those currently involved in a relationship , Evolutionary-inclined researchers have often used these findings to point to the adaptive nature of sex-specific mating strategies see Schmitt, These data demonstrate fairly modest relative sex differences in propensities toward sex beyond a committed relationship—which are indeed important to document.
Yet, a cross-cultural sex difference of This is especially true considering that, compared to males, the relative risks of sexual behavior are higher for females: Although there is a reasonable proportional difference between sexes, there are still nearly two thirds of unpartnered women interested in uncommitted sex and over one fifth of unpartnered men who are not interested in this activity. In short, there is significant overlap between the sexes and significant variation within the sexes.
All things considered, the simplest expectation is that evolutionary processes will result in both men and women desiring both sex and pair-bonding.
Extrarelational sex is part of the human mating repertoire, as is pair-bonding. The popularity of hooking up among both men and women presents a problem for approaching human sexuality purely from the perspective of sexual strategies theory. That both men and women are engaging in this behavior at such high rates is not consistent with the model. Homosexual relationships also presents a quandary for sexual strategies theory. Although the proportion of gay men in open relationships seems to support the theory i. For instance, Li and Kenrick have pointed to the benefits of using an evolutionary economic model of tradeoffs to understand sex differences in willingness to engage in short-term sex, and sex similarities in prioritization of short-term partners.
Using biological and cross-cultural evidence, Fisher , has argued human possess a dual reproductive strategy of social monogamy serial or long-term and clandestine adultery. In their comparison of theoretical models, they found that attachment fertility theory. If humans possess a fairly flexible sexual repertoire, yet pair-bonding is essential, this sets the stage for a conflict between competing motivational drives that are fine tuned to particular environments.
In accordance with an evolutionary model, the simplest, most general prediction is that men will be relatively more competitive and sexually eager, and that women will be relatively choosier. Further, in accordance with an evolutionary model emphasizing pair-bonding, both men and women will have competing motivational drives for sexual engagement and pair-bond formation.
This might assume that penetrative sexual intercourse between fertile men and women entails a sizable risk of reproduction for females—an assumption that simply no longer applies to humans in the 21st century. In contemporary industrialized cultures, pleasurable sexual behaviors can be divorced from reproduction and used for other purposes, including social standing and simple enjoyment, among others.
Contraception and reproductive technologies allow women greater control over reproduction, but this should not be enough to completely overwrite millions of years of evolutionary pressure to shape certain aspects of mating psychology. Rather, in these contemporary conditions, those who use contraception to optimize their reproductive output may well be evolutionarily favored.
Women could, for example, use contraception to control the timing of pregnancies in ways that maximize the chance of success, or ensure parentage by favored males over lesser-quality mates. Thus, contraception is simply an additional feature of the environment of reproduction, and males and females are expected to attempt to manipulate it in their own favor.
However, the ability to divorce sex from reproduction should allow for less discrepancy between males and females in willingness to engage in uncommitted sex and negotiations of both sexual and romantic desires.
Clearly, the evolved reproductive motive involves both sexes desiring sex and desiring pair-bonds, but having different ways of obtaining each and different prioritizations for each. Scripts, particularly gender-normative ones, dictate behaviors, such as who does what and when in context e.
The most widely produced and promoted cultural sexual scripts are heterosexual in nature and include those focused on male roles Kim et al. For men, sex is portrayed as central to male identity, men prefer nonrelational sex, and men are active sexual agents. Women are portrayed as sexual objects, sexually passive compared to men, and women act as sexual gatekeepers.
Sexual script theory is generally vague when it comes to origins, focusing more on descriptions of scripts. Wiederman , Phillips , and Jhally have argued that scripts are not only sexualized but also gendered, with underlying sexual messages being noticeably different for men and women. Many researchers Jhally, ; Kim et al. But this does little to explain why the media industry produces these scripts in the first place.
It is not by accident that consumer behavior can be well-explained by those products most salient to human survival and reproduction, and why messages of love and sex are among the most producible Saad, But, on their own, both the evolutionary perspective and the social scripts perspective have thus far been inadequate in fully unpacking the origin of sexual messages, their propagation, and their social retention.
Without identifying a primary, hierarchal, origin, it is likely that media is reflecting actual behavioral change in a circular way—media is a reflection of our evolutionary penchants, further exaggerated and supported by the presumption that it is popular. Images of a polymorphous sexuality that decenters the reproductive motive and focuses instead on sexual pleasure are consistently appearing in popular media.
If the total flow supplying your buildings does not meet the requirements it is necessary to pipe a by-pass loop at the back of the furnace. Essentially this involves installing an additional pump which pulls water from a hot supply connection and returns it directly to a cold return connection. This pump and pipe must be sized to deliver enough flow to bring the total flow rate of all the circuits up to the minimum flow rate.
An example of a by-pass loop is shown below. Automatic and Manual Air Vents are two typical types used. Air is always an enemy in any hydronic heating system, but even more so in an open system.
The location of the air eliminators in the heating system is critical in how effective, or hindering, they may be. A properly placed air vent should allow for quick and simple removal of the air upon initial commissioning of the system and for easy inspection or service at a later date. Typically an air vent is located wherever the fluid in the system flows horizontally and then turns to go down. At that point use a tee in place of an elbow and install the air vent on the top of the tee.
Should an air vent ever be installed on the intake side of a pump?
If the pump is located at the outdoor furnace then there should be no need for an air vent on the intake of the pump. The piping should be simply routed from the connection at the furnace down or horizontally into the pump. If the pump is in the building it should be positioned so that, if at all possible, there are no air entrapment points in the piping before the pump. If this cannot be avoided, then an air vent may be installed at the air entrapment point on the intake side of the pump if the location of the vent is at least two feet lower than the water level in the outdoor furnace.
If this vent is opened when the pump is on, it may draw air in through the vent and add to the air problems in your system. When servicing more than one heating load in a system, the order you supply each demand is quite important. When a heating system is designed it is important that this temperature drop be taken into account in order for each component in the system to meet its demand. The typical order is as follows: Typical design temperature required is F.
Finned copper tube design. A radiator installed in the plenum of a forced air furnace or a fan unit with a radiator built in. A floor heat system that is hung with clips or transfer plates to the underside of a floor, in a wall, or even a ceiling.
In this method the piping radiates its heat through the air surrounding the piping and then into the room through the floor, wall, or ceiling. Aluminum heat transfer plates may also be used in this method to boost the performance in high heat loss areas. A special stainless steel or titanium heat exchanger may be used to heat the pool or hot tub water. A piping system embedded in a concrete floor such as a basement, garage, or workshop. A floor covered with a topping pour of gyp-crete or concrete would also fall into this category.
Typical design temperature required is 80 F. A piping system designed to melt and evaporate snow and ice from outdoor areas such a sidewalks, driveways, or decks. This piping may be embedded in concrete or hung in staple up fashion depending on the application. Typical design temperature required is 40 F. When designed properly, this enables the maximum amount of heat to be extracted from a minimal amount of flow from the outdoor furnace. Less piping, smaller piping, smaller pumps and lower heat loss. That translates into money saved in both initial set-up and long term operating costs.
If we look at the last two items in the Order of Operations list above we see that the water temperature required for slab heating a basement, workshop, or snow melt area is significantly lower than what we generate from our outdoor furnace. We need to cool that water down before we send it into the slab. One way to do this is to take heat off the water in other areas before we supply the floor as laid out in the Order of Operations. But what if those heat loads are satisfied and are not taking any, or enough, heat off the water? We need to be sure the water temperature going to these slabs is carefully controlled or several problems can result.
If we have floor heat in our workshop and our thermostat calls for heat and our pump starts feeding F. Very little, for awhile. Concrete is heavy and it takes a long time to warm that mass up even a few degrees. The conventional thermostat may call for heat for an hour or so before the floor has warmed up and heated the room to the point where the thermostat is satisfied.
The thermostat turns off and the cycle repeats itself, right? If we have been feeding F. This can cause the temperature to overshoot our thermostat set point by several degrees making the room uncomfortably hot. Floor heat does not only warm up the air in the room but everything in the room as well.
These objects, and the building structure itself, act as another heat storage mass. These objects slowly release their heat to the room as the building cools down and this can keep the temperature above the thermostat set point for another period of time. Now our thermostat calls for heat again but the floor has been off for so long that it has lost a significant amount of temperature and it will have to run for a lengthy period of time to start contributing heat to the room.
In the mean time the building continues to loose heat and may actually drop slightly below the the thermostat set point causing things to get a little cool in the room. Now the cycle repeats itself. This is only one of the adverse effects of supplying water that is too hot to a floor. Floor coverings may also be damaged as a result of this excessive temperature. Hardwood floors can dry out, shrink, and crack. Needless to say it is very important to control the water temperature going into a floor. Can you control the temperature by just slowing the flow by closing a valve a little?
The water will come out of the floor cool but it causes uneven heating across the floor. You should be able to find a heat exchanger to fit most popular sizes of plenums. If you are unable to the ductwork must be modified to accept the heat exchanger. Wear proper protective gear.
Measure the width of the heat exchanger Dimension A in next diagram.
Measure the thickness of the heat exchanger Dimension C. Start by cutting a hole in the side of the ductwork the thickness of the heat exchanger Dimension C and the full length of the ductwork usually Dimension A. Metal edges are very sharp! Wear protective gloves and use caution! Slide the heat exchanger into the hole for a test fit. Ideally the header and tubes F should stick out of the plenum. While test fitting try to determine how much tape is needed around the frame of the heat exchanger to seal and keep air from flowing around it.
A different amount thickness may be needed on different sides. Secure in place using pop rivets or self tapping screws. Slide the heat exchanger carefully into the plenum to check the fit again.
Once proper fitting is verified, you can seal off the ends of the heat exchanger and the hole you made in the plenum with foil or duct tape. You can install a heat exchanger in a plenum that is smaller than the length of the heat exchanger as follows. Make cuts at the top and bottom of the plenum, usually 4 inches long the width of the heat exchanger as shown below. You may need to do this on both sides of the ductwork depending on the heat exchanger size. Slide the heat exchanger through the front hole to the back hole so it protrudes out the front and back of the plenum the same amount.
Ideally the core of the heat exchanger will be entirely within the plenum. Crimp the sheet metal to the edge of the heat exchanger item G using channel-lock pliers. This not only forms a virtually airtight seal, but also supports the heat exchanger as well. The motors on most force air furnaces have three speeds to provide various rates of air movement. Please consult a local furnace specialist if you want to change the airflow of an existing furnace system. The NCB boiler may be connected to an existing boiler system.